voice changing rules for SSC HSC Hons BCS Bank with exercise

voice changing rules for SSC HSC Hons BCS Bank and so on given here voice definition, details changing rules based on sentences and others index. so this article can follow every level of apprentice for their knowing voice changing and its pros and crons. JSC to BCS every person can follow this details formula of Voice changing rules. There given important grammar rules.

Voice কী?
নিচের বাক্য দুটি তুলনা করো:
I like cricket very much.
Cricket is very much liked by me.

এখানে প্রথম বাক্যে verb দ্বারা সূচিত কাজটি subject নিজে করে তা বলা হয়েছে। অর্থাৎ subject এখানে সক্রিয় বা active। দ্বিতীয় বাক্যে verb-দ্বারা সূচিত কাজটি subject নিজে না করে কাজটি গ্রহণ করছে। অর্থাৎ subject এখানে নিষ্ক্রিয় বা passive। কোনো বাক্যের subject সক্রিয়, না নিষ্ক্রিয়তা বোঝানোর জন্যে verb-এর যে form ব্যবহৃত হয় তাকে voice বলা হয় ।

Voice দুই প্রকার।
1. Active voice
2. Passive voice

Verb-এর যে form দ্বারা কোনো একটি কাজ subject নিজে করে বোঝায় তাকে active voice বলে।

Verb-এর যে form দ্বারা কোনো কিছু subject নিজে না করে verb দ্বারা সূচিত কাজটি গ্রহণ করে বোঝায় তাকে passive voice বলে ।

উদাহরণ:
Active: She takes a cup of coffee every day. (active বাক্যটিতে subject টি নিজে কাজ সম্পাদন করে)।
Passive: A cup of coffee is taken by her every day. (passive বাক্যটিতে subject টি কাজ গ্রহণ করে)।

voice changing rules for SSC HSC Hons BCS Bank with exercise

Active থেকে Passive করার সাধারণ নিয়মাবলি

1. Assertive Sentence

Assertive sentence -এর Active voice ও Passive voice -এর গঠন নিম্নরূপ-

Active : Subject + verb + object
Passive: Subject (active এর object) + auxiliary verb + মূল verb এর past participle + by + object (active এর subject) Active থেকে passive করার সময় –
Active এর object টি passive এর subject হিসেবে বসবে আর active এর subject টি passive এর object হিসেবে বসবে ।

সুতরাং Active এ subject হিসেবে I, we, he, she, they ইত্যাদি থাকলে passive-এ তা object হিসেবে যথাক্রমে me, us, him, her, them হবে।

আবার, একইভাবে active এ object হিসেবে me, us, him, her, them থাকলে passive এ এগুলো subject হিসেবে যথাক্রমে I, we, he, she, they হবে.

Active voice কে Passive voice-এ রূপান্তরের কতিপয় নিয়মাবলি:

Rule:1

Active voice present indefinite tense হলে অর্থাৎ subject + verb-এর present form passive voice -এ subject এর পর am/is/are বসবে +verb এর past participle বসবে।
উদাহরণঃ
Act: He speaks English.
Pass: He spoke English.
Act: I see them
Pass: They are seen by me.
ব্যাখ্যাঃ Active-এর verb speak ও see হলো the present form of passive is + speak এর pp ‘spoken’ এবং are + see এর pp ‘seen’ বসছে। [PP→Past Participle]

Rule: 2

Active voice টি past indefinite tense হলে অর্থাৎ sub + verb এর past form থাকলে passive voice-এ subject এর পর was/were + verb এর past participle বসবে।
উদাহরণঃ

Act: He spoke English.
Pass: English was spoken by him.
Act:I saw them.
Pass: They were seen by me.
ব্যাখ্যাঃ Active এর verb ‘spoke’ ও ‘saw’ দ্বারা verb এর past form বোঝায়। তাই নিয়মানুসারে passive voice এ subject এরপর was + ‘spoke’ এর PP ‘spoken’ এবং were + ‘saw’ এর pp ‘seen’ বসেছে।

Rule 3:

Active voice টি present continuous tense অথবা past continuous tense হলে অর্থাৎ subject এর পর am/is/are/was/were + verb-ing যুক্ত থাকলে, passive voice এ am being/is being /are being/was being/were being + verb এর past participle বসবে।
উদাহরণঃ
Act: He is writing a letter.
Pass: A letter is being written by him
Act: They were playing football.
Pass: Football was being played by them.
ব্যাখ্যাঃ Active এ ‘is + verb + ing’ ও ‘were + verb+ ing’ থাকায় passive এ যথাক্রমে is being + verb এর pp ও was being’ + verb এর pp বসানো হয়েছে।

Rule 4

Active Voice টি Present perfect tense অথবা past perfect tense এর হলে অর্থাৎ subject এর past participle থাকলে passive voice এ Subject এর পর have been/has been/had been+ verb এর past participle হবে।
উদাহরণঃ
Act: I have done the work.
Pass: The Work has been done by me.
Act: He Had Told the story
Pass: The Story had been told by him
ব্যাখ্যাঃ Active এ have ও had থাকবে কারণ passive এ subject এর পর যথাক্রমে has been+ verb এর PP ও had been+verb এর PP বসেছে। লক্ষ করি, প্রথম উদাহরণটিতে active এ have রয়েছে। কিন্তু passive এ has বসেছে। কারণ I এর পর have বসে কিন্তু the work যেহেতু third persion singular number তাই এর পর has বসে।

voice changing rules for SSC HSC Hons BCS Bank with exercise

Rule 5

Active voice এ Modals(Shall, will, can, could, going to ইত্যাদি )থাকলে passive voice এ subject এর পর modals+be+verb এর past participle বসবে।
উদাহরণঃ
Act: Kamal will write it.
Pass: It will be written by kamal
Act: He should give up his bad habits
Passive: His bad Habits should be given up by him.
ব্যাখ্যাঃ
Active-এ modals ‘will’ এবং should থাকায় passive এ subject এর পর will be+verb এর PP written এবং should be+ give এর PP given বসেছে।

Rule 6

Active voice -এ shall be/ will be+ verb এর সাথে ing যুক্ত থাকলে subject এ shall be being/ will be being+verb এর past participle হবে।
উদাহরণঃ
Act: I shall be writing the letter
Pass: The letter will be being written by me
ব্যাখ্যাঃ Active এ shall be+ verb+ing থাকায় passive এ subject ‘the letter’ এর পর will be being+write এর PP written বসেছে।

Rule 7

Active voice এ যদি দুটি object থাকে তবে passive করার সময় প্রথমে দুটি object এর যে কোন একটিকে subject করতে হবে+ Tense অনুযায়ী auxiliary verb বসবে+ মুল verb এর PP হবে+ বাকী object টি বসবে+by বসবে+active এর subject এর object রুপ বসবে।
উদাহরণঃ
Act: I gave him a book
Pass: He was given a book by me Or A book was given him by me.
Act: He teaches us English
Pass: We are taught English by him Or English is taught us by him.
ব্যাখ্যাঃ প্রথমে active বাক্যটিতে দুটি object রয়েছে him and a book. so passive voice করার সময় এদের যে কোন একটিতে সাব্জেক্ট হিসেবে ব্যবহার করা হয়েছে এবং বাকি অবজেক্ট টিকে মূল verb এর Past participle এর পর বসানো হয়েছে।
[নোটঃ তবে দুটি অবজেক্ট এর মধ্যে personal or indinet object কে subject করাই ভালো]

Rule:8

Active voiceএর অবজেক্ট টি যদি Reflexive pronoun(myself, ourselves, yourself, himself, herself, themselves) হয় তবে তাকে নিন্মোক্তভাবে passive করতে হবে। Active এর সাবজেক্ট টি অপরিবর্তিত অবস্থায় passvie এর সাবজেক্ট হবে+ auxiliary verb + main verb+PP form+by+ reflexive pronoun হবে।
উদাহরণঃ
Act: she killed herself
Pass: She was killed by herself

voice changing rules for SSC HSC Hons BCS Bank with exercise

Rule: 9

কিছু কিছু verb যেমনঃ make, hear, feel, compel, know, watch ইত্যাদির পর active voice এ to উহ্য থাকে। তবে passive voice এ তাদের পর to বসাতে হয়।
উদাহরণঃ
Act: He made me drive the car
Pass: I was made to drive the car by him
ব্যাখ্যা: Active এ made verb টির পর drive verb-টির আগে কোনো to ব্যবহার করা হয়নি। এটা উহ্য রয়েছে। কিন্তু passive voice এ made verbটির পরে drive verb এর আগে to ব্যবহার করা হয়েছে।

Rule 10

Active voice এর যদি clause ‘that’ দ্বারা যুক্ত থাকে , তবে দুটি claue এরই passive voice করতে হবে।
উদাহরণঃ
Act: He told me that he had done the work
Pass: I was told by him that the work had been done by me.
ব্যাখ্যাঃ He told me এবং he had done the work ‘clause’ দুটি that দ্বারা যুক্ত রয়েছে। তাই দুটিরই passive করা হয়েছে।

Rule 11

অনেক সময় active voice এর সাবজেক্ট কে অবজেক্ট করার সময় by ছাড়া অন্য Preposition যেমন to, at , with, on ব্যবহার করা হয়।
উদাহরণঃ
Act: He annoyed me
Pass: I was annoyed with him
Act: I know him
Pass: He is known to me
Act: His behavior surprise us
Pass: We were surprised at his behavior.

Rule: 12

Noun + verb + adjective আকারের Passive voice কে Active voice রূপান্তর নিম্নরূপ-
প্রথমে noun টি বসবে + be verb বসবে + Adjective টি বসবে + when বসবে + it/they বসবে + be verb বসবে + মূল verb এর PP বসবে। অথবা, Noun বসবে + be verb বসবে + verb এর PP বসবে + Adjective বসবে।
উদাহরণঃ
Act: Honey Tastes Sweet
Pass: Honey is sweet when it is tasted
Or
Honey is Tasted, Sweet
Act: Rice Sells Cheap
Pass: Rice is cheaped when it is sold
OR Rice is sold Cheap.
ব্যাখ্যাঃ এখানে, Honey, Rice হলো noun; tastes ও sells হল verb এবং sweet ও cheap হল adjective।

voice changing rules for SSC HSC Hons BCS Bank with exercise

Rule 13

কোন Factitive object, passive voice এর subject হতে পারে না। এ ক্ষেত্রে মূল objective টি passive voice এর subject হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হয়। আর Factitive object টি object হিসেবেই থেকে যায়। [Note: বাক্যের সম্পূর্ণ অর্থ প্রকাশ করার জন্য যে অতিরিক্ত object ব্যবহৃত হয়, তাকে Factitive object বলে বা complementary object বলে।। যেমন: We made him captain. এখানে captain হলো Factitive object.
উদাহরণঃ
Act: He called it Laurel
Pass: It was Called laurel by him
ব্যাখ্যাঃ এখানে, it হলো মূল object এবং laurel হলো Factitive object, তাই passive voice-এ subject হিসেবে ‘it’ ব্যবহৃত হয়েছে।

2. Interrogative sentence

Rule 14:

Interrogative sentence যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
1) Structure: Interrogative sentence কে Assertive sentence এ রুপান্তর করে নিতে হবে + রুপান্তরিত Assertive sentence এর active voice থেকে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করতে হবে + এবার রুপান্তরিত passive voice এর auxiliary verb টিকে প্রথমে বসাতে হবে + শেষে প্রশ্নবোধক চিহ্ন বসে। **** Tense অনুসারে করতে হবে।

Example 1:
Active: Do you eat rice?
Assertive: You have eaten rice.
Assertive এর passive: Is rice eaten by you?
Passive এ রুপান্তর: Has rice been eaten by you?

Example 2:
Active: Is he reading a book?
Assertive: He is reading a book.
Assertive এর passive: A book is being read by him.
Passive এ রুপান্তর: Is a book being read by him?

Example 3:
Active: Did you play football?
Assertive: You played football.
Assertive এর passive: Football was played by you.
Passive এ রুপান্তর: Was football played by you?

Rule 15

2) Who যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure:
Who এর পরিবর্তে By whom + tense ও person অনুযায়ী Auxiliary verb + object এর subject + অনেক সময় tense অনুযায়ী কর্তার পরে be/ being/ been বসাতে হয় + verb এর past participle form + ?.

Active: Who makes it?
Passive: BY whom is it made?
Active: Who will help me?
Passive: By whom will I be helped?

Rule 16

3) Whom যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-

Structure:
Whom এর পরিবর্তে who + tense ও person অনুযায়ী

Auxiliary verb + verb এর past participle form + by + subject এর object +?
Active: Whom did you want?
Passive: Who was wanted by you?
Active: Whom has he murdered in this home?
Passive: Who is murdered by him in this home?

voice changing rules for SSC HSC Hons BCS Bank with exercise

Rule 17

4) What যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-

Structure:
What + tense ও person অনুযায়ী Auxiliary verb + verb এর past participle form + by + subject এর object +?

Active: What do you want?
Passive: What is wanted by you?

3) Imperative sentence

Rule 18

1) শুধু মাত্র মূল verb দিয়ে শুরু যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-
Structure: Let + object এর subject + be + verb এর past participle form

Active: Close the door.
Passive: Let the door be closed.
Active: Shut the window.
Passive: Let the window be shut.

Rule 19

2) Do not দিয়ে শুরু যুক্ত যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-

Structure:
Let not + object এর subject + be + verb এর past participle form

Active: Do not close the door.
Passive: Let not the door be closed.
Active: Do not shut the window.
Passive: Let not the window be shut.

Rule 20

3) Let এর পর যদি কোন ব্যক্তিবাচক object (me, us, you, them, him, her)থাকে এবং তা যদি Imperative sentence হয়, তাহলে active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-

Structure:
Let + object এর subject + be + verb এর past participle form + by + ব্যক্তিবাচক object.

Active: Let me play football.
Passive: Let the football be played by me.
Active: Let us sing a song.
Passive: let a song be sung by us.
Active: let him give the chance.
Passive: let the chance be given by him.

voice changing rules for SSC HSC Hons BCS Bank with exercise

Rule 21

4) Never যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-

Structure:
Let not + object এর subject + ever be + verb এর past participle form

Active: Never tell a lie.
Passive: Let not a lie ever be told.
Active: Never do this.
Passive: Let not this ever be done.

5) মূল verb এর পর যদি কোন ব্যক্তিবাচক object (me, us, you, them, him, her) থাকে এবং তা যদি Imperative sentence হয়, তাহলে active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-

Structure: Let + direct object টি বসবে (মূল verb এর পর যে object টি থাকে + be + verb এর past participle form + for + ব্যক্তিবাচক object

Active: Buy me a shirt.
Passive: Let a shirt be bought for me.
Active: Give me a glass of water.
Passive: Let a glass of water be given for me

4) Complex and compound sentence

Rule 22

1.Complex and compound sentence যুক্ত active voice এ রূপান্তরের সময় উভয় clause এর voice পরিবর্তন হয়।

Active: I know that he did the work.
Passive: It is known to me that the work was done by him.
Active: He told me that he had done the work.
Passive: I was told that the work had been done by him.

Note: Active voice “people say” দিয়ে শুরু হলে It is said দিয়ে passive voice করাই ভাল।

Active: People say that the lion is the king of the forest.
Passive: It is said that the lion is the king of the forest.

Rule 23

2 Intransitive verb যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-

সাধারনত Intransitive verb এর passive voice হয় না। তবে Intransitive verb এর পরে preposition যুক্ত হয়ে যদি group verb গঠন করে এবং তা Intransitive verb হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হয় তাহলে –

Structure: Object টি subject + tense অনুযায়ী Auxiliary verb + verb এর past participle form + প্রদত্ত preposition + by + subject টির object।

Active: The truck run over the boy.
Passive: The boy was run over by the truck.
Active: They looked at the poor man.
Passive: The poor man was looked at by them.

Rule 24

Cognate object যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-

Cognate object এর সংজ্ঞা – কিছু intransitive verb তাদের সমর্থক object নিয়ে transitive verb হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হয়। এ ধরনের object কে Cognate object বলে।

Structure: Object টি subject + tense অনুযায়ী Auxiliary verb + verb এর past participle form + by + subject টির object।

Active: He caught a fish.
Passive: A fish was caught by him.
Active: You ran a race.
Passive: A race was run by you.

voice changing rules for SSC HSC Hons BCS Bank with exercise

Rule 25

Infinitive যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-

Structure:
প্রদত্ত active voice এর subject + মূল verb + infinitive এর পরের object (যদি থাকে) + to be + infinitive এর পরের verb এর past participle form.

Active: He wants someone to take a camera.
Passive: He wants a camera to be taken.
Active: He wants you to write a letter.
Passive: He wants a letter to be taken.

Rule 25:

Gerund combinations অর্থাৎ advise/ propose/ recommend/ suggest + gerund + object যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-

Structure:
প্রদত্ত active voice এর subject + মূল verb + that + gerund এর পরের object টি + should be + প্রদত্ত gerund টি verb এ রূপান্তরিত হয়ে verb এর past participle form বসে।

Active: He suggested giving up smoking.
Passive: He suggested that smoking should be given up.
Active: He wanted playing football.
Passive: He wanted that football should be played.

Rule 26:

Agree, be anxious, arrange, determine, be determined, decide, demand, + infinitive + object যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-

Structure:
প্রদত্ত active voice এর subject + মূল verb + that + infinitive এর পরের + object + should be + infinitive এর পরের 
verb এর past participle form.

Active: He decided to buy the house.
Passive: He decided that the house should be bought.
Active: You agreed to sell the house.
Passive: You agreed that the house should be sold.

Rule 27:

One + should যুক্ত active voice কে passive voice এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম-

Structure:
Object এর subject + should be + verb এর past participle form

Active: One should take care of one’s education.
Passive: Education should be taken care of.
Active: One should tell the truth.
Passive: Truth should be told

voice changing rules for SSC HSC Hons BCS Bank with exercise

Exercise 1

1. Complete the sentences with the correct passive form of the verbs in brackets. Use the Present Simple.

a. English is an international language. It —- (speak) in many countries.
b. Here is a post office. The post—- (deliver) at about 7 o’clock every morning.
c. —–(the building/use) any more?
d. How often the Olympic Games —-(hold)?
e How—-(your name/spell)?
f. My salary – —(pay) every month.
g. These cars —— (not make) by his company.
h The name of the people who committed the crime—(not know).
i. His travel expenses—(not pay) by his company.
j. This programme —-(watch) by millions of people.
k. Paper—–(make) from wood.
1. Hundreds of people——- (kill) in accidents every year.
m. London—- (visit) by thousands of tourists every year.
n. The biology class—–(teach) by Mr. Green.
0.—–(speak) all over the Hundreds of languages world.
p. Lunch—-(serve) at twelve o’clock. So hurry up.
q. These books—– (write) by British authors.

Exercise 2

2. Complete the sentences with the correct passive form of the verbs in brackets. Use the Past Simple.

a. My car—-(repair) last week. b. This song—(not write) by John Lennon. c—.(the phone/answer) by a young girl? d. The film — (make) ten years ago. e. When – (tennis/invent)? f.The car—(not damaged) in the accident. g. The original building – (pull) down in 1965. h. Where — (this pot/make)? i. When – (this bridge/build)?

3. Expand the following newspaper headlines. Use the passive form. You might have to add articles if necessary (The first one is done for you).

(i) Shah Rukh Khan Given Best Actor Award =Shah Rukh Khan was given the Best Actor Award.
(ii) 260 Passengers Killed In Train Accident
(iii) Murderer of Finance Minister Arrested Yesterday
(iv) Prince Williams Sent to Boarding School
(v) Dog Bitten In Anger By Man

voice changing rules for SSC HSC Hons BCS Bank with exercise

Exercise 4

4. Rewrite each of the following sentences in the active voice.

i. The students in the hostel are being taken care of by the warden.
ii. The results of the students have been withheld by the office.
iii. Admission to any course cannot be given by the Institute automatically.
iv. A complete change of the office set up was brought about by the Director.
v. The proposal has to be approved by an expert committee before it is implemented.

5. Rewrite the following sentences as impersonal passives (The first one is done for you).

i. Reporters reported on the earthquake in Delhi.= It was reported that the earthquake occurred in Delhi.
ii. People believe that it caused severe damage.
iii People say that it was unexpected.
iv. People think that the earthquake is due to global warming.
v.Reporters reported that there might be another earthquake soon in Central India.

Solution to Exercise

a. is spoken; b. is delivered; c. Is the building used; d.is the Olympic Games held; e. is your name spelt; f. is paid; g. are not made; h. is not known; i. are not paid; j. is watched; k. is made; 1. are killed; m. is visited; n. is taught; o. are spoken; p. is served; q. are written.

2. a. was repaired; b. was not written; c. Was the phone answered; d. was made; e. was tennis invented; f. was not damaged; g. was pulled; h. Was this pot made; i. was this bridge built.

voice changing rules for SSC HSC Hons BCS Bank with exercise

3. ii. 260. passengers were killed in a train accident.
iii The murderer of Finance Minister was arrested yesterday.
iv. Prince William was sent to a boarding school.
v A dog was bitten in anger by a man.

4 i. The warden is taking care of the students in the hostel.
ii. The office has withheld the results of the students.
iii. The institute cannot give admission to any course automatically.
iv. The Director brought about a complete change of the office set up.
v.An expert committee has to approve the proposal before you/we implement it.

5. ii. It was believed that severe damage was caused.
iii It is said that it was unexpected.
iv. It is thought that the earthquake is due to global warming.
v It was reported that there might be another earthquake soon in Central India.

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